Everyone who has been to Amsterdam has noticed how crooked Amsterdam houses are. Amsterdam houses are leaning forward, they tilt to one side and some look like they might fall over. So why are Amsterdam houses crooked? Tourist guides and books have all kinds of explanations. Looking more closely into this problem, the answer is not as simple as tourist websites make it sound. In fact, the experts are not all that certain why the Amsterdam houses look slanted and skewed. There are many theories. Here are the most likely.
Why are Amsterdam houses crooked?
1. The quality of the wooden poles
All houses in Amsterdam are built on piles, drilled meters deep into the wet soil. Nowadays they fill up the pile with cement to make them extra sturdy, but in the old days they used wooden piles.
If they don’t build the houses in Amsterdam on poles, the houses would simply sink into the swampy ground. The Amsterdam soil consists of 11 meters of soft peat and clay before the poles hit the first solid layer of sand. Nowadays, the piles are drilled further into the ground until they hit a second layer of sand, at 18 meters deep.
Why buildings in Amsterdam look skewed
In many cases, the wooden poles were of a lesser quality, not long enough or not thick enough. Save to say, the builders did not give out a 300-year guarantee. The old age and quality of the wooden piles make the buildings in Amsterdam sink unevenly in the ground, making the buildings in Amsterdam looked skewed.
How to check the foundation of an Amsterdam house
There is no way to check the condition of the foundation of an Amsterdam house, except by opening up the floor and digging into the ground, a costly undertaking. Sometimes an investigation has already been done. The council of Amsterdam keeps record of these investigations and save the reports for future reference. If you ever buy a house in Amsterdam, make sure you check with council. And check the walls for cracks.
2. Renovating one of the houses in a row
As long as the houses are tightly packed together, holding each other, everything’s fine. But when one of the houses in the row gets a makeover or starts moving and the poles are not in the best condition, you get the famous crooked house you often see along the Amsterdam canals.
Houses on corners, that lack a neighboring building on one side are most sensitive to slanting because they have no house next door to lean on. Often, the walls of a corner house will start to look bloated.
3. Rotting of the wooden poles
Another reason for the Amsterdam houses to tilt to one side, is the rotting of the wooden poles. The water level in the city is controlled by a special governmental agency, called Waterschap. Its board of members is chosen independently and democratically during public elections. When the Waterschap agency decides the water level may be lowered, the poles are exposed to oxygen and start to rot. And when de foundation is slowly decaying, the entire Amsterdam house will start to lean to one side.
4. Adding extra floors on top
Especially in the Amsterdam Jordaan Quarter, many houses start to sink into the ground when they add an extra floor on top. The weight of the house is bigger than the old builders had calculated all those centuries ago. The result: a crooked Amsterdam facade.
Wy are houses in Amsterdam leaning forward?
Many old Amsterdam houses are leaving forward towards to the street. This leaning is not an accident. Amsterdam houses were built leaning forward intentionally! In Dutch this is called ‘op de vlucht bouwen’.
Until the start of the 19th century, construction regulations in Amsterdam specifically stated that all houses need to lean forward. It even stated by how much. Houses on corners needed to lean forward on both ‘open’ sides.
1. Remainder from Medieval leaning house
In Medieval times, all over Europe, all houses were made out of wood. These timber framed buildings had an upper floor larger than the size of the floor below. This technique is called jettying.(Dutch: overstek)
The biggest advantage of this method of building is that when it rains, the water doesn’t enter into the floor below. It also make the upper floor bigger, without taking too much space in the street. Especially in narrow medieval street plan, this is a great advantage.
The fires of 1452
After a large fire in 1452 destroyed a huge part of the wooden houses in Amsterdam, new houses were as much as possible constructed with bricks.
But the traditional building guild of Amsterdam kept the tradition of construction houses that lean forward. When in the 19th century Napoleon did away with the guilds of Amsterdam, houses were built straight. Halfway through the 20th century it was even banned to build ‘op de vlucht’. Nowadays, it is allowed to build a leaning house in Amsterdam when all the other houses are leaning as well. It just looks better that way.
2. Easier to hoist up goods
Most of the houses in Amsterdam were not only used for living, they are also used to store goods. Amsterdam was a typical ‘staple port’. This is a place where merchants make money by trading all kinds of goods that enter into the city, usually by boat.
Goods like cotton, spices and cacao were stored in special warehouses, but also in the attic of merchants houses along the Amsterdam canals. The goods are hoisted up from the street using the hook on the beam sticking out at the top floor. A leaning facade meant it was less likely that the goods hit the wall or break a window.
3. It just looks good
It might sound silly, but it’s quite probable that the houses of Amsterdam lean forward because their owners wanted to show off their fancy facade. The wealth and glory of the Amsterdam canal house is mostly found in the upper part of the facade. After all, that’s where the gable is. When the house is leaning forward, you can see those decorations much better.
Why are the canal houses in Amsterdam so narrow?
Throughout the centuries, the phased expansions of the city of Amsterdam were thoroughly planned. The plots of land along the 3 main 17th century canals (Herengracht, Keizersgracht, Prinsengracht) were initially quite small. Each plot was 5 to 7 meters in width. Probably they chose to divide the land this way because that way, a maximum amount of houses has an entrance on the waterfront, the most important means of transportation in the late 16th century. Amsterdam houses might seem narrow, but they are quite deep. In the back there is a large garden hidden from view and often the rich had a carriage house in the back.
Because the houses are so narrow, staircases in Amsterdam houses are also famously narrow. This might seem difficult when you want to move house, but in fact, up to this day, people use the hoist beam on top and the wide windows to move their stuff into a house.
Not all houses along the Amsterdam canals are narrow. Rich merchants who could afford it, simply bought 2 plots of land to build a massive ‘city palace’ along the water.
Especially along the ‘Golden Bent’ (Gouden Bocht) of the Herengracht, where the wealthiest of the wealthy lived, the houses are much bigger. obviously, the owners did not need to stock any wares in the attic to make some extra cash; these bankers and magistrates were already rich enough. This is why there is no beam on top of the city palaces. And moving house is also not a problem, often they have the most spectacular stair cases, decorated heavily.
Many taxes were determined by the size of the facade along the water. Most city guides and guide books tell you this is the reason for the narrow canal houses. But this can’t be the reason, because when these taxes were introduced, the canal ring had already been dug and the houses had already been built!